The Intersectional Wage Gaps Faced By Latina Women In The United States
Every year, The Latina Center coordinates the Latina Legislative Day offering Latina women from throughout the Bay Area an opportunity to visit Sacramento. Women walk the halls of the State Capitol meeting with California legislators and Latina/o leaders.
This decade’s version of the Indian Population Schedule featured questions asking the individual’s proportion of white, black, or American Indian lineage. For 1890, the Census Office changed the design of the population questionnaire. Residents were still listed individually, but a new questionnaire sheet was used for each family. Additionally, this was the first year that the census distinguished among different Asian ethnic groups, such as Japanese and Chinese, due to increased immigration.
It was used to symbolically sever Mexico’s Spanish roots, while at the same time, reinforcing a notion of belonging between the two nations. The Latin race, as defined in this context, was composed of all people descending from nations who spoke romance tongues, descending from Latin.
Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona and Texas, all of which were part of Mexico from its independence in 1821 from Spain until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states.
Cubans are mostly of White Latin American ancestry, however there are also populations of Blacks and multi-racials as well. The race and culture of each Hispanic/Latino country and their United States diaspora differs by history and geography.
The United States Census Bureau uses the ethnonyms Hispanic or Latino to refer to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race and states that Hispanics or Latinos can be of any race, any ancestry, any ethnicity. Spanish is used to refer to the people, nationality, culture, language and other things of Spain. The term commonly applies to the countries once under colonial possession by the Spanish Empire following the Spanish colonization of the Americas, parts of the Asia-Pacific region and Africa.
While race/ethnicity definitions for 2020 will remain consistent, individuals who identify as White, Black/African American, and/or American Indian or Alaska Native will be asked to specifically identify their racial origins. In September 1997, during the process of revision of racial categories previously declared by OMB directive no. 15, the American Anthropological Association recommended that OMB combine the «race» and «ethnicity» categories into one question to appear as «race/ethnicity» for the 2000 census. The Interagency Committee agreed, stating that «race» and «ethnicity» were not sufficiently defined and «that many respondents conceptualize ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity’ as one in the same underscor the need to consolidate these terms into one category, using a term that is more meaningful to the American people.»
It includes people who indicate their race as «Native Hawaiian», «Guamanian or Chamorro», «Samoan», and «Other Pacific Islander». A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment.
Despite Puerto Rican populations in New York and New Jersey being relatively stagnant, other parts of the Northeast continue to see very strong growth, particularly Pennsylvania and Lower New England . Pennsylvania easily having the second largest numerical increase of Puerto Ricans for the past 10–15 years, showing an increase of over 110,000 from second only to Florida. Of smaller states with populations under 3 million, Rhode Island has the fastest growing number of Puerto Ricans. New York is still a relatively popular destination for those migrating from Puerto Rico, though not as much as in the past, as said earlier Florida and other Northeast states are now receiving larger numerical growth.
Ed Morales, a lecturer at Columbia University’s Center for the Study of Ethnicity and Race, says that Latinx sounds futuristic — and while some consider that a good thing, others would prefer tradition. Critics have suggested that it sounds too American, erasing a Spanish language that needs to be preserved by immigrant communities. Others have said the word creates distance between Americans and people in Latin America who aren’t using the term. And some conservatives see the label as just one more example of unnecessary political correctness.
The date November 20 is based on the finding that Hispanic women workers are paid53 centson the white non-Hispanic male dollar, using the 2017 March Current Population Survey for median annual earnings for full-time, year-round workers. We get similar results when we look at averagehourlywages for all workers (not just full-time workers) using the monthly Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group for 2018—which show Hispanic women workers being paid 56 cents on the white male dollar.
Conversely, Mexican and Costa Rican women are often migrating from a patriarchal husband-wife system, with just 13% and 22% of households headed by women in these countries, respectively. Puerto Rico lies somewhere between these two systems, sharing aspects of both patriarchal and matrifocal systems. According to a study published by the National Institute of Health, these patterns correspond with relatively low female participation in the labor force. These wage gaps in the workforce affect Latinas at every socioeconomic status, not just the working class.
Or recall the discussions about genderless military titles, like “midshiperson,” which have yet to leave port. It comes as no surprise to most that there’s a sustained pay gap http://blog.9ksq.com/4344.html between men and women in the American work force, but today we look beyond the gap between just men and women and instead recognize how race and ethnicity impacts this divide.
As a result, Latino immigrants struggle to gain health care once they enter the United States. Non-citizen Latinos often avoid hospitals and clinics for fear of deportation, leading to an increased risk of preventable diseases such as tuberculosis and Hepatitis in this population. Additionally, Latino health deteriorates as this population assimilates into unhealthy lifestyles associated with lower socioeconomic American populations. While the primary reason for immigration into the United States for Latinas is economic improvement, the betterment of family life remains an important factor.
Latinas also have higher rates of gestational diabetes, which puts them at greater risk for type 2 diabetes later in life. Latina women experience unintended pregnancy at twice the rate experienced by white women. Latina women experienced higher rates of human papillomavirus, or HPV, than white women as of 2010 and twice the death rate from cervical cancer. Seventeen percent of Latina women receive Medicaid, compared to 9 percent for white women.
I first started running this program out of my own living room, in order to bring Latina women together to build peer support and increase opportunities for Latina women in our community. This program grew into a one-year leadership development and community service program and today I am so proud to say that over 820 women have graduated from MSL as Peer Leaders! MSL is a life changing experience that has had a profound impact on the lives of so many women who have successfully rebuilt their self-esteem, recovered their pride in their identities as Latina women and re-established their dreams.